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General Turquoise Information

This Turquoise Geology and Geography section will help
you find the locations of Turquoise mines and resources.

There are Turquoise deposits in New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona,
Virginia, California and Colorado. Arizona and Nevada are the highest producers of Turquoise in America. Arizona mines are known for their blue colored Turquoise and Nevada is known for beautiful green tones of Turquoise.

The Anasazi Indians of the Colorado basin regions used Turquoises in their adornment and medicine around 1400 A.D. The Pueblo Indians along the Rio Grande of what is now known as New Mexico used Turqoise for adornment and medicine probibly from 1600 A.D. or earilier. In the mid to late 1800's, the Spaniards came up through Mexico and taught the Navajo Indians how to work silver. In the late 1800's, the Navajos started using Turquoise in their silverwork and soon to follow were the Zuni Indians and others.

During the copper, silver and gold prospecting years of the southwestern United States of the early 1900's, is when large deposits of American Turquoise was found. Prospectors in Nevada were the first to find large Turquoise Deposits while looking for gold and Arizona was next. You can find a wealth of information at our online Turquoise Museums. There you will find lists of the American Turquoise mines and examples of the Turquoise that comes out of them.

Turquoise is said to be the first gemstone found and known to man
in about 5500 B.C.. Turquoise was commonly used for adornment by natives world wide since. Historicly, heavy use of Turquoise has been found in Egypt, Tibet, Persia, Pre-Columbia, China and America.

Middle East
Egypt-The history of Turquoise use in the Middle East coincides with the beginning of civilization itself. Turquoise mining began in the Sinai Peninsula around 5500 BC. The stones taken from these mines served jewelry, amulet and cosmetic purposes for millennia. In 1900, archaeologists who excavated the tomb of the Egyptian Queen Zer (5500 BC) found a Turquoise and gold bracelet on her wrist. These are the world’s oldest known examples of surviving jewelry.
Persia-Around 3200 BC, the kings of Egypt began annual mining expeditions to the Sinai. In Persia, Archaeologists have found beads of Turquoise that date around 5000 BC. Amulets from 600 AD contained carvings of Islamic and Persian Proverbs. The fine stones from this area were important sources of trade and were found in graves as far away as Turkestan and the Caucasus. These revered stones, so important to the Persian culture, were called Ferozah, which meant victorious. In modern times, Iran honors Turquoise as its national gemstone.
The Bible-The book of Exodus contains an important reference to Turquoise. The Breastplate of the Hebrew High Priest Aaron contained twelve stones set in four rows. Turquoise was the first stone on the second row.
Pre-Columbian America
Southwestern United States-The Anasazi had opened their Turquoise mines by 1000 AD and had established extensive trading practices with the peoples of what is now Mexico. The mining locations included locations in Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado. In cities such as Chaco Canyon, the Anasazi traded their Turquoise for the feathers of tropical birds. As demand for the Anasazi Turquoise grew in the south, the society at Chaco Canyon grew wealthy. The ancient Turquoise jewelry of the Zuni tribes was characterized by prominent inserts of the stone. Navajo Turquoise jewelry features die-stamped designs. In the 16th century, the cultures of the American Southwest used Turquoise as currency. It was also often found on the facades of Indian homes.
Mexico-Aztec Turquoise mines began operating between 900-1000 AD.

Asia
By the middle of the first millennium, AD, China had begun using Turquoise and although they had mines in their empire, they imported most of their stones from Persians, the Turks, the Tibetans and Mongols. Japan’s use of Turquoise began in the 18th Century AD.

Europe
Around 500 BC, inhabitants in Siberia had begun using the stone, But it did not gain favor with Western European fashion until the late middle ages when trade with the Near and Middle East had increased. The origin of the word Turquoise is French and comes from Venetian Traders, who bought it from the great bazaars in Turkey, though the Turkish traders brought it from the Persian mines. Shakespeare’s "The Merchant of Venice” features a Turquoise ring. The Aesthetic Period (1880-1901) responded to the strict provisions of Queen Victoria’s mourning and jewelry became more whimsical; Turquoise played a large role in the jewelry of this period but played an even greater role during the Romantic Period (1837 to 1860). The light gold worked jewelry of this period contained fine gems that were often accented by Turquoise.

Also; See Turquoise Grades

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